Additional Resources

Cardiovascular Disease

NDI is a strong supporter of a healthy, balanced diet combined with a physically active lifestyle as a means to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. We are proud to support the following organizations in such efforts as public awareness, disease prevention, and healthy lifestyle choices and encourage the use of these sites as additional resources:

The Omega-3 Blood Test

Albert CM, Campos H, Stampfer MJ, Ridker PM, Manson JE, Willett WC, Ma J. Blood Levels of Long Chain n-3 Fatty Acids and the Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death. New England Journal of Medicine 2002; 346: 1113-1118. [NDI Executive Summary]

GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators* (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico). Dietary Supplementation With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Vitamin E After Myocardial Infarction: Results of the GISSI-Prevenzione Trial. The Lancet 1999; 354: 447-455. [NDI Executive Summary]

Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Mahra MR, Ventura HO. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2009; 54: 585-594.

Lemaitre RN, King IB, Mozaffarian D, Kuller LH, Tracey RP, Siscovick DS.  n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Fatal Ischemic Heart Disease, and Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 77: 319-325. [NDI Executive Summary]

Pottala JV, Garg S, Cohen BE, Whooley MA, Harris WS. Blood Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Predict All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease - The Heart and Soul Study. Circulation, Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 2010; 3: 406-412. [NDI Executive Summary]

Simon JA, Hodgkins ML, Browner WS, Neuhaus JM, Bernert JT, Hulley SB. Serum Fatty Acids and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease. American Journal of Epidemiology 1995; 142(5): 469-476. [NDI Executive Summary]

Siscovick DS, Raghunathan E, King I, Weinmann S, Wicklund KG, Albright J, Bovbjerg V, Arbogast P, Smith H, Kushi LH, Cobb LA, Copass MK, Psaty BM, Lemaitre R, Retziaff B, Childs M, Knopp RH. Dietary Intake and Cell Membrane Levels of Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acids and the Risk of Primary Cardiac Arrest.  Journal of the American Medical Association, 1995; 274: 1363-1367. [NDI Executive Summary]

Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, Matsuzawa Y, Saito Y, Ishikawa Y, Oikawa S, Sasaki J, Hishida H, Itakura H, Kita T, Kitabatake A, Nakaya N, Sakata T, Shimada K, Shirato K,  for the JELIS Investigators. Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid on Major Coronary Events in Hypercholesteroaemic Patients (JELIS): A Randomized Open-Label, Blinded Endpoint Analysis. The Lancet 2007; 369:1090-1098. [NDI Executive Summary]

The PLAC® Test

Anderson JL. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2: An Independent Predictor of Coronary Artery Disease Events in Primary and Secondary Prevention. American Journal of Cardiology 2008; 101[Suppl]: 23F-33F.

Ballantyne CM, Hoogeveen RC, Bang H, Coresh J, Folsom AR, Heiss G, Sharrett R. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Risk for Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-Aged Men and Women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Circulation 2004; 109: 837-842.  [NDI Executive Summary]

Ballantyne CM, Hoogeveen RC, Bang H, Coresh J, Folsom AR, Chambless LE, Myerson M, Wu KK, Sharrett AR, Boerwinkle E. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Risk for Incident Ischemic Stroke in Middle-Aged Men and Women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005; 165: 2479-2484.

Corsetti JP, Rainwater DL, Moss AJ, Zareba W, Sparks CE. High Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 is a Risk Factor for Recurrent Coronary Events in Postinfarction Patients. Clinical Chemistry 2006; 52: 1331-1338.

Davidson MH, Corson MA, Alberts MJ, Anderson JL, Gorelick PB, Jones PH, Lerman A, McConnell JP, Weintraub HS. Consensus Panel Recommendation for Incorporating Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Testing into Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment Guidelines. American Journal of Cardiology 2008; 101 [suppl]: 51F-57F.

Elkind MS, Tai W, Coates K, Paik MC, Sacco RL. High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2, and Outcome after Ischemic Stroke. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006; 166: 2073-2080.

Garza CA, Montori VM, McConnell JP, Somers VK, Jullo IJ, Lopez-Jimenez F. Association Between Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2007; 82: 159-165.

Gorelick PB. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and Risk of Stroke. American Journal of Cardiology 2008; 101[Suppl]: 34F-40F.

Greenland P, Alpert JS, Beller GA, Benjamin EJ, Budoff MJ, Fayad ZA, Foster E, Hlatky MA, Hodgson JM, Kushner FG, Lauer MS, Shaw LF, Smith SC, Taylor AJ, Weintraub WS, Wenger NK. 2010 ACCF/AHA Guideline for Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Asymptomatic Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2010; 56: 2182-2199.

Koenig W, Khuseyinova N, Lowel H, Trischler G, Meisinger C. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Adds to Risk Prediction of Incident Coronary Events by C-Reactive Protein in Apparently Healthy Middle-Aged Men from the General Population: Results from the 14-year Follow-Up of a Large Cohort from Southern Germany. Circulation 2004; 110: 1903-1908.

Koenig W, Twardella D, Brenner H, Rothenbacher D. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Predicts Future Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease Independently of Traditional Risk Factors, Markers of Inflammation, Renal Function and Hemodynamic Stress (KAROLA). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2006; 26: 1586-1593.

Kolodgie FD, Burke AP, Skorija KS, Ladich E, Kutys R, Makuria AT, Virmani R. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Protein Expression in the Natural Progression of Human Coronary Atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2006; 26: 2523-2529.

Liang M, Puri A, Devlin G.  The Vulnerable Plaque: The Real Villain in Acute Coronary Syndromes.  Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal 2011; 5: 123-129.

Packard CJ, O'Reilly DSJ, Caslake MF, McMahon AD, Ford I, Cooney J, MacPhee CH, Suckling KE, Krishna M, Wilkinson FE, Rumley A, Lowe GDO.  Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 as an Independent Predictor of Coronary Heart Disease: West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group (WOSCOPS). New England Journal of Medicine 2000: 343: 1148-1155.

Toth PP, McCullough PA, Wegner MS, Colley KJ. Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2: Role in Atherosclerosis and Utility as a Cardiovascular Biomarker. Expert Reviews in Cardiovascular Therapy 2010; 8: 425-438.

Sabatine MS, Morrow DA, O'Donoghue M, Jablonski KA, Rice MM, Solomon S, Rosenberg Y, Domanski MJ, Hsia J. Prognostic Utility of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 for Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2007; 27: 2463-2469.

Sacco RL, Adams R, Albers G, Alberts MJ, Benavente O, Furie K, Goldstein LB, Gorelick P, Helperin J, Harbaugh R, Johnston SC, Katzan I, Kelly-Hayes M, Kenton EJ, Marks M, Schwamm LH, Tomsick T.  Guidelines for the Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Council on Stroke. Stroke 2006; 37: 577-617.

Robins SJ, Collins D, Nelson JJ, Bloomfield HE, Asztalos BF. Cardiovascular Events with Increased Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and Low High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol: The Veterans Affairs HDL Intervention Trial (VA-HIT). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2008; 28:1172-1178.

Tselepsis AD, Chapman MJ. Inflammation, Bioactive Lipids and Atherosclerosis: Potential Roles of a Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2, Platelet Activating Factor-Acetylhydrolase. Atherosclerosis Supplements 2002; 3: 57-68.

Vickers KC, Maguire CT, Wolfert R, Burns AR, Reardon M, Geis R, Holvoet P, Morrisett JD. Relationship of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein in Carotid Atherosclerosis. Journal of Lipid Research 2009; 50: 1735-1743.

Zalewski A, Macphee C. Role of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 in Atherosclerosis: Biology, Epidemiology and Possible Therapeutic Target. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2005; 25: 923-931.

The CardioMPO™ Test

Brennan ML, Penn MS, Van Lente F, Nambi V, Shishehbor MH, Aviles RJ, Goormastic M, Pepoy ML, McErlean ES, Topol EJ, Nissen SE, Hazen SL. Prognostic value of myeloperoxidase in patients with chest pain. New England Journal of Medicine 2003; 349: 1595-1604.

Heslop CL, Frohlich JJ, Hill JS.  Myeloperoxidase and C-Reactive Protein Have Combined Utility for Long-Term Prediction of Cardiovascular Mortality After Coronary Angiography. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2010; 55: 1102-1109.

Meuwese MC, Stroes ESG, Hazen SL, van Miert JN, Kuivenhoven JA, Schaub RG, Wareham NJ, Luben R, Kastelein JJP, Khaw K, Boekholdt SM. Serum Myeloperoxidase Levels are Associated with the Future Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in Apparently Healthy Individuals: The EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2007; 50: 159-165.

Ndrepepa G, Braun S, Mehilli J, von Beckerath N, Schömig A, Kastrati A. Myeloperoxidase level in patients with stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 2008; 38: 90-96.

Tang WHW, Shrestha K, Troughton RW, Borowski AG, Klein AL. Integrating Plasma High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Myeloperoxidase for Risk Prediction in Chronic Systolic Heart Failure. Congestive Heart Failure 2011; 17: 105-109.

Tang WHW, Katz R, Brennan ML, Aviles RJ, Tracy RP, Psaty BM, Hazen SL. Usefulness of Myeloperoxidase Levels in Healthy Elderly Subjects to Predict Risk of Developing Heart Failure. American Journal of Cardiology 2009; 103: 1269-1274.

Vita JA, Brennan ML, Gokce N, Mann SA, Goormastic M, Shishehbor MH, Penn MS, Keaney JF, Hazen SL. Serum Myeloperoxidase Levels Independently Predict Endothelial Dysfunction in Humans. Circulation 2004; 110: 1134-1139.

Wong ND, Gransar H, Narula J, Shaw L, Moon JH, Miranda-Peats R, Rozanski A, Hayes SW, Thomson LEF, Friedman JD, Berman DS. Myeloperoxidase, Subclinical Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Disease Events.  Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Imaging 2009; 2: 1093-1099.

The ASA Effect™ Test

Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative Overview of Randomised Trials of Antiplatelet Treatment I: Prevention of Death, Myocardial Infarction, and Stroke by Prolonged Antiplatelet Therapy in Various Categories of Patients. British Medical Journal 1994; 308: 81-106.

DiChiara J, Bliden KP, Tantry US, Hamed MS, Antonino MJ, Suarez TA, Bailon O, Singla A, Gurbel PA. The Effect of Aspirin Dosing on Platelet Function in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients - An Analysis From the Aspirin-Induced Platelet Effect (ASPECT) Study. Diabetes 2007; 56: 3014-3019.

Eikelboom JW, Hirsh J, Weitz JI, Johnston M, Yi Q, Yusuf S. Aspirin-Resistant Thromboxane Biosynthesis and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, or Cardiovascular Death in Patients at High Risk for Cardiovascular Events. Circulation 2002; 105: 1650-1655.

Faraday N, Becker DM, Yanek LR, Herrera-Galeano JE, Segal JB, Moy TF, Bray PF, Becker LC. Relation Between Atherosclerosis Risk Factors and Aspirin Resistance in a Primary Prevention Population. American Journal of Cardiology 2006; 98: 774-779. [Abstract Link]

Gum PA, Kottke-Marchant K, Poggio ED, Gurm H, Welsh PA, Brooks L, Sapp SK, Topol EJ. Profile and Prevalence of Aspirin Resistance in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease. American Journal of Cardiology 2001; 88: 230-235.

Hankey GJ, Eikelboom JW.  Aspirin resistance. The Lancet 2006; 367: 606-617.

Lewis HD, Davis JW, Archibald DG, Steinke WE, Smitherman TC, Doherty JE 3rd, Schnaper HW, LeWinter MM, Linares E, Pouget JM, Sabharwal SC, Chesler E, DeMots H. Protective Effects of Aspirin Against Acute Myocardial Infarction and Death in Men with Unstable Angina: Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. New England Journal of Medicine 1983; 309: 396-403.

Pappas JM, Westengard JC, Bull BS. Population Variability in the Effect of Aspirin on Platelet Function: Implications for Clinical Trials and Therapy. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 1994;118: 801-804.

Yassine HN, Davis-Gorman G, Stump CS, Thomson SS, Peterson J, McDonagh PF. Brief Report: Clinical Determinants of Aspirin Resistance in Diabetes. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2010; 54: 585-594.

The DHA Score

Birch EE, Garfield S, Hoffman DR, Uauy R, Birch DG. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Early Dietary Supply of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mental Development in Term Infants.  Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 2000; 42: 174-181.

Brenna JT, Varamini B, Jensen RG, Diersen-Schade DA, Boettcher JA, Arterburn LM. Docosahexaenoic and Arachidonic Acid Concentrations in Human Breast Milk Worldwide. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; 85: 1457-1464. [Abstract Link]

Dunstan JA, Mitoulas LR, Dixon G, Doherty DA, Hartmann PE, Simmer K, Prescott SL.  The Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy on Breast Milk Fatty Acid Composition over the Course of Lactation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  Pediatric Research 2007; 62: 689-694.

Guxens M, Mendez MA, Molto-Puigmarti C, Julvez J, Garcia-Esteban R, Forns J, Ferrer M, Vrijheid M, Lopez-Sabater MC, Sunyer J. Breastfeeding, Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Colostrum, and Infant Mental Development.  Pediatrics 2011; 128: e880.

Jensen CL, Voigt RG, Prager TC, Zou YL, Fraley JK, Rozelle JC, Turcich MR, Llorente AM, Anderson RE, Heird WC.  Effects of Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake on Visual Function and Neurodevelopment in Breastfed Term Infants.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005; 82: 125-132.

Kuipers RS, Luxwolda MF, Sango WS, Kwesigabo G, Dijck-Brouwer DA, Muskiet FA.  Maternal DHA Equilibrium During Pregnancy and Lactation is Reached at an Erythrocyte DHA Content of 8g/100g Fatty Acids. Journal of Nutrition 2011; 141: 418-427.

Lauritzen L and Carlson SE.  Maternal Fatty Acid Status During Pregnancy and Lactation and Relation to Newborn and Infant Status. Maternal and Child Nutrition 2011; 7 (Suppl 2): 80-88.

Makrides M, Collins CT, Gibson RA.  Impact of Fatty Acid Status on Growth and Neurobehavioural Development in Humans. Maternal and Child Nutrition 2011; 7 (Suppl 2): 41-58.

Schwartz J, Dube K, Alexy U, Kalhoff H, Kersting M. PUFA and LC-PUFA Intake During the First Year of Life: Can Dietary Practice Achieve a Guideline Diet? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010; 64: 124-130.